Friday, September 19, 2008

Lailatul Qadr : The Night of Power

Lailatul Qadr - The Night of Power
Sura Qadr in Farsi

Lailatul Qadr falls on the one of the last Nights of Ramadan (some hadiths say its in the 19th, others 21st, others say 23rd) and this is significant event in Muslim history as not only did Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) receive his first revelation that culminated in the Holy Quran, but this day marks the anniversary of his Prophethood on earth. Muslims all over the world spend this night in prayers as it holds special Barakah for those in prayer.

"In the name of God, the Beneficent the Merciful ". "Indeed We sent it [the Holy Quran] down on the Night of Power. What will convey to you what the Night of Power is? Better is the Night of Power than a thousand months. In that Night the angels and the Spirit descend by the permission of their Lord for every errand. Peace it is, until the break of dawn."
- Quran, Chapter 97 Al-Qadr

Many interpreters of this verse in the Holy Quran state that thousand months is Allah's way of defining eternal time as it cannot be described in worldy time. A single moment of enlightenment of the Noor of Allah is better than a thousand months and such a moment of recognition converts the night into a period of Spiritual glory and majesty, and every one of us should try to work towards this.

When the night of spiritual darkness is removed by the Noor of Allah, a wonderful peace and sense of security arises in the soul which lasts until this physical life ends and the glorious day of the spiritual world dawns, when everything will be on a different plane and the nights and days of this world will seem less than a dream. This is the meaning of "until the rise of dawn" and not the literal interpretation as many may construe or understand it. Surely, Allah's realm/time span is larger.

Allah has says in the Quran: Rise to pray in the night except a little (73:1)

Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad (salwaat) to spend most of the night in worship in order that his Lord may lift him to a higher elevation. His Family (salwaat) and Wives and Companions (RA) would join him for the nightly meditation (Baitul Khayal) and would be rising up in station and spirituality: Surely We will make to descend on you a weighty Word. Surely the rising by night is the firmest way to tread and the best corrective of speech. (73, 1-5)

Listen to Sura Qadr Audio File in MP3 Format

Our beloved Prophet Muhammad, praise and peace be upon him, said: "Whosoever offers voluntary prayers during the Night of Power out of belief and charging Allah with its recompense will have his past sins forgiven." - Hadith, compiled by Bukhari and Muslim

Dai Nasir-i Khusraw explains the significance of this night saying: " You illuminate the mosques on the Night of Qadr and make it as bright as the day, while your hearts are as dark as the darkest night. Know that illuminations are not enough. When you light the lamps, remind yourselves that your dark hearts, without inner purifications, will not become enlightened by the lamps".

Layltul-QadrThe Glory and Majesty of this night cannot be explained in any human terms. This Night is an opportunity to open out our hearts unto Him Who revealed the Holy Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad, who kept Allah's message everliving and appointed his heirs, the Imams, as the carriers of the Divine mission.

This night is therefore, not only the Anniversary Night of the Holy Quran, but it is also the Anniversary of Hazrat Nabi Muhammad's Prophethood.

For You what then is the significance of Lailatul Qadr?

O Allah treat me as one of those

who are free from Hell,

in the name of this Holy Book

sent by Thee, whatever there

be in the Book. Including Ism-e-A'azam

and Asmaa-e-Husnaa and the things

to be dreaded, the things that may be expected and desired, like blessings of Jannat. Do forgive through the grace of this book

"Alaahumma inni asaloka be kitaabekal munzale Wa maa feeh, wa feehismokal akbaro wa asmaakal husnaa, wa maa yokhaafo Wa yurjaa an taj-alani min otaqaaeka minan-Naar",

Pakistan's mystical Islam thrives

By Asim Butt, Karachi

Sufi shrine, Karachi
The Abdullah Shah Ghazi shrine is a magnet for devotees
The mystical form of Islam espoused by Sufi saints for hundreds of years continues to thrive in Pakistan despite opposition from religious hardliners and the authorities.

As the sun sets on a Thursday evening, hundreds of working class people descend on a shrine to the eighth-century mystic, Abdullah Shah Ghazi, in Karachi.

The shrine is located on a hill in the upmarket Clifton district of Pakistan's financial capital, flanked by swanky shopping malls and the posh residential area of Defence.

In the grounds below the shrine gather electricians, plumbers, construction workers, vagabonds, transvestites, prostitutes. Encircled by a cheering crowd, men take turns in a weightlifting competition.

Another circle dances to the drumbeat of the shrine's dhol players.

Devotional singing, or "qawali", emanates from an enclosure adjacent to the open grounds, yet another crowd swaying under its spell.

Holy nights

The men, for this public space is overwhelmingly male-dominated, belong to all the ethnicities and sects that make up Pakistan, mixing freely in a city rife with divisions.

Homeless man at Sufi shrine, Karachi
Many homeless people are drawn to the shrine's grounds

Food stalls, bonfires, stereo-players, huddles of ganja-smoking men, smaller ones of heroin users, others swigging local brews, make up this multi-ethnic weekly party that rocks into the early hours of the morning.

Although Thursdays are traditionally holy nights when devotees pray at Sufi shrines, the revelry at Shah Ghazi seems to have little to do with prayer.

Music, dance and drugs, though proscribed by orthodox Islam, are the traditional vehicles of devotion here - as they are at most shrines in Pakistan.

Sufism has historically provided Islam with an alternative to orthodoxy and has won it most of its converts.

Sufi saints created mass appeal through their merging with pre-existing faiths of the region and their ability to align themselves with popular interests.

The mass appeal of saints like Shah Ghazi and others persists in spite of 200 years of opposition from puritanical reformers and the state.

From the late 19th century on, reformers sought to purify Islam by rejecting elements they believe had crept in through Sufism.


Under the colonial regime, although landed Sufis were used as intermediaries between government and subjects, ascetics were seen as a threat and criminalised.

Sufi shrine, Karachi
The shrine is also a centre of entertainment

Similarly, while ancient Sufis were viewed as genuine agents of spirituality, living mystics were dismissed as frauds.

The 19th Century Sufi, Mewa Shah, also buried in Karachi, was jailed and eventually exiled by the British.

According to legend, Mewa Shah alighted the ship taking him into exile, said his prayers on the waves of the Arabian Sea and mounted a large fish which took him back to the shores of Karachi.

Post-colonial Pakistan has had a schizophrenic policy towards Sufi shrines.

By subsuming them under the Auqaf department, the state has sought to weaken the powers of the spiritual heirs of the saints.

Established under Ayub Khan in 1959, the Auqaf department received its charter from Javed Iqbal, the son of Pakistan's founding visionary poet, Mohammad Iqbal, who actually bemoaned the superstitions of Indian Muslims.

Sufi shrine, Karachi
Karachi's dispossessed come for free food

The pamphlets published by the department expunged the miraculous from the legends, repainting the lives of Sufi saints in a modernist light.

The powers of the department were expanded further under the pseudo-socialist government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1976 and have persisted through Zia ul-Haq's Islamist dictatorship and Pervez Musharraf's rule of "enlightened moderation".

Meanwhile, state functionaries and politicians have continued to seek legitimacy from the shrines by turning prayer visits into public appearances and photo opportunities.

Although tributes paid by devotees are siphoned through the Auqaf department, alms are also received by the dozen or so kitchens that run along the front of the shrine.

The money is used to provide two daily meals to anyone in need. The most destitute thus encamp outside the shrine, among them glue-sniffing runaway children, heroin addicts and other homeless men and women.

The Sufi shrines offer the underclass spiritual sustenance, a social valve of entertainment, and a safety net of free rations.

It is a bond that has not been loosened by militant Islam.

Thursday, September 18, 2008

Islamic Pluralism as a tool for understanding others.

(a paper presented by Yusuf Roque Morales in the Interreligious conference held last August at the Dela Salle University Manila)


In the Name of God, Most Merciful and Most Compassionate, Lord of Humanity.

The people were one community(Ummah); then God sent forth the Prophets, Good Tidings to bear and warning, He sent down with them the Book with the truth, that He might decide the people touching their differences.”

(Surah al-Baqarah :213)

I would like to quote words from a former Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Barrister Abdul Rehaman,”During my researches, false ideas about Islam are still popular... and that misunderstanding and misinterpretations has added to the further ignorance about Islam. Essentially a system of peace, Islam presents a non-antagonistic view of all religious systems.”1

The Potential problems of Inter-Religious and intercultural Dialogue intensify in proportion to the exclusivity of the religious doctrine. Exclusivist Religious orientations and belief system can become divisive forces that can aggravate religious conflicts that can rip the fragile national psyche of a nation and in the context of multi-cultural societies retard the emergence of a national identity of a people. We have seen these things happen countless times.

We have seen that not only in the Muslim world alone that whenever religion permeates the national culture, Religious tradition maintains an active interest in issues of national politics and social justice. In the Muslim context the limit of strictly religious values in determining the national policies of a Muslim Nation state have never been fully explained or generally accepted by Muslim communities, thus creating a gray area in relating to current issues.

Currently there has been in existence Muslim nation states that seek to manifest the “Islamic or Muslim “ character of their country and thus in the process may seek to express their particular world-view on particularly religious moral precepts.

The Fear of Westoxification (Ghrabzadeghi) still exists around although this is manifested in diverse forms. And since classical Islamic Juridical thought is being taught still up to the present, the dual world-view of Darul Harb and darul Islam is still being perceived by the Western media as the dominant world-view of Muslims globally.

However it would be meritorious to note that although this is true to some extent that due to the existence of groups who try to fossilize Islamic thought, notably there are indeed evidences that indeed even in our own sacred texts, there are divine ordinances that order us to talk or do dialogue with other faiths, and that even the Beloved Prophet Muhammad (Salawatullahi alayhi) has conducted dialogue or has ordered his companions to do dialogue.

In the last three decade, religion has re-emerged as an important source of moral imperative needed to maintain social cohesion. Religious commitment has not only mobilized peoples sense of outrage in resisting abuses but it also has played a very constructive role in national reconciliation and nation building.

It is indeed in this tradition that we wish to lay a humble wreath of acknowledgement and that we would like to continue in that path of dialogue as well.

Because of the rise of the political doctrine of both the “clash of civilizations “ of Huntington and the “Preemptive strike doctrine” there was a rise of Islamic thinkers who have become alarmist, mistakenly possessing a conceptual continuity with the traditional views on Jihad and the increasing dangerous quandaries today. This has become the oft-cited” clash” with religiously inspired militancy massed against the liberal and democratic values of the West.

In the conventional view of the academe and the media (largely the media), not only are Muslims engaged in destabilizing the regional security arrangements they are also zealously opposed to anything that smacks of western liberal and democratic values.

This skewed viewpoint has been perpetuated by scholarship that treats Muslim fundamentalism as qualitatively distinct and irreducible to any common ground, representing an image of Islam in abstraction. Add to this the very vocal and visible image of minorities that present this idea.

Given the deepening global crisis arising from the misuse of religion by highly vocal minorities, it is indeed important for Muslim thinkers to rediscover and promote a common concern for peace with justice. No Muslim scholar could undermine the existing international order without taking a critical reassessment of the religious and ideological landscape that he lies thiamin. After all, in Islam, all human endeavours are distinct aspects of a total dialectic whose aim is the establishment of a global community under God.

Therein lies that distinct need for pluralism.

The Basis of Islamic Pluralism

Before justifying Islamic Pluralism, we may need to define it. What entirely is Islamic Pluralism?

Islamic pluralism is defined as the concept of maintaining peaceful relations between different religions, that is manifested in a number of related ways:

  • Islamic Pluralism may describe the Islam's worldview that it is not only one's religion as not the sole and exclusive source of truth, and thus recognizes that some level of truth and value exists in at least some other religions.

  • Islamic pluralism often is used as a Basis for interfaith dialogue. At a minimum, This leads promotion of unity, co-operation, or improved understanding between different religions, or denominations within the same religion

This is normally a synonym for religious tolerance, which is a condition of harmonious co-existence between adherents of different religions or religious denominations.

Beyond the particularist domains of the church, mosque, temple and synagogue, the ecumenical sensitivity of having pluralism as a common ground has drawn the attention of the people around the world, influencing their lives beyond the confines of their faith communities. It is the non-institutional of pluralism that has attracted a substantial majority of the world population. It manifests the universal social dimension of ones personal and private faith in order to project them in the world. This furthers inter-human understanding beyond an exclusionary and consequently intolerant institutional religiosity.

Islamic revelation presents a theology that resonates with the modern pluralistic belief that other faiths are not merely inferior manifestations of religiosity, but variant forms of individual and communal responses to the presence of the Transcendent in human life. All people are created in same divine nature (fitrah Allah) with a disposition that leads to the knowledge of God, the Creator to whom all worship is due simply because of the creation.2

This universal knowledge of the being in creation holds equally for the believer or non-believer, the worshiper of one being or of idols. More important, both a monotheist and an idolater can understand God by inspiring faith in divine mercy and forgiveness, can guide anyone who He wills to save.3

The term pluralism is one of the catchwords of a new order whose diversity of cultures, belief systems and values inspires both exhilaration at the endless shadings of human expression and dread of irreconcilable conflict.

This need to acknowledge the existence of the other may be due to the technological advances pushing the world into a global community where unlike before were nations isolated by physical , cultural and ideological boundaries. And this context they have been relatively isolated from one another and previous encounters with diversity were not as always friendly and warmly received. And in the end, conflicts and clashes occur as a result of cultural and civilizational differences, becoming a major source of dehumanizing others.

Recognition of religious pluralism within a community of faithful promises to advance the principle of inclusiveness, which would counsel accommodation, not conflict, among competing claims to religious truth in religiously and culturally heterogeneous societies. This could lead in a way to sense of multiple and unique possibilities for enriching the human quest for spiritual and moral wellbeing.

The Quran in recognizance of the universality of man has always been clear in its declaration that:

O Humankind, We have created you male and female, and appointed you races and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely the Noblest among you in the sight of God is the Most Godfearing among you. God is All-knowing and All-Aware.”

(Surah al-Hujurat:13)

The Qur'an has used the word li Ta'arafu (you may know/comprehend) whose root word, arif means to fully understand. For by understanding yourselves only that you can talk with each other.

In looking at Pluralism in the Islamic tradition,we shall look at the context of the Qur'an, being the Primal source of Muslim creed and law.

The Muslim pluralist creed is further elucidated in Surah al-Baqarah Ayah 285 which states:

The Messenger (Muhammad PBUH) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and so do the believers. Each one Believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books and His messengers.(they say) WE make no distinction between any of His messengers and they say 'We hear and obey.'”

(Surah al-Baqarah: 285)4

It is part and parcel of being Muslim to accept several general facts:

First, that before the advent of Muhammad (PBUH) there were other Prophets sent before him,

Second, and that some of these Prophets brought scriptures or revelation as a proof of their tasks.

Ans thirdly it is part and parcel of their faith that they must acknowledge these Prophets saying “La nufariqu bayna Ahadin min Rusulih” We make no distinction between any of them. What is clear therefore is that from the very start Muslims are ordered to be open and welcome to other faiths.

This ayah merely reinforces in an earlier ayah of the universality of revelation and that God has sent his mercy to all of mankind. As it runs states:

The people were one community (Ummah); then God sent forth the prophet, Good Tidings to bear and warning, He sent down with them the Book with the truth, that He might decide the people touching their differences.”

(Surah al-Baqarah :213)

And of course the universality of prophets sent by God to all nations is mentioned many times in the Qur'an and among them I would cite these from the many l ayahs (verses) from the Holy Qur'an , :

And verily We have sent among every Ummah (community/nation) a messenger (proclaiming) worship Allah (alone) and avoid (keep away from) Taghout (all false deities/beliefs)5

(Surah an-Nahl: 36)

And for every Ummah (a community or nation) there is a messenger; when their messenger comes, the matter between them will be judged with justice, and they will not be wronged”

(Surah Yunus: 47)6

And we have sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad) of some of them we related you (the Muslims) their story and some of them we have not related.”

(Surah al-Ghafir: 78)7

What is clear from these verses that God has sent Messengers to all peoples and communities which means that each community has a distinct part of the truth. According to Prophetic Traditions, God has sent 120,000 prophets and that in that Muslims acknowledge that they have been divinely sent.

As a part of the Abrahamic traditions the Qur'an speaks of a group of believers known as Ahlul Kitaab (people of the book) of which the Qur'an speaks of them and at certain times, God revelations in the Qur'an are addressed to them.

The Qur'an describes them in a manner as :

And you will find nearest in love to the believers those who say “we are Christians” that is because among them are monks and priests and they are not Proud”

(Surah al-Maidah :82)8

The Qur'an also sets a standard on how dealings with People of the Book (Ahlul Kitaab) should be conducted:

And argue not with the People of the Scriptures unless it be in (a way) that is better, save with such of them that do wrong: and say: We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you: Our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender. “

(Surah Ankabut:46)9

And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. So judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed, and follow not their desires away from the truth which hath come unto thee. For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced-out way. Had Allah willed he could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He hath given you (He hath made you as ye are.) So vie one with one another in good works. Unto Allah ye will all return, and He will then by that wherein ye differ. ”

(Surah Al Maidah :48)10

We could go on and on, describing ayah after ayah that clearly mandates each and every particular rule that tells us that as Muslims, it is but part and parcel of our faith to be pluralism and open to dialogue but then what?What does this mean for us Muslims in today's globalized world?

There are several realizations to this questions. I would like to point out that the major argument for religious pluralism in Islam which is expressed in the Qur'an is clearly based on the relationship between private faith and its projection to the Islamic Polity.

  1. It is clear that in matters of private faith, the position of the Qur'an vis-a-vis other faiths is non-interventionist. In the Public projection of that faith, Islam is based on the principle of peaceful coexistence, the willingness of a community(in a Muslim country) to recognize religiously independent communities to ruin their affairs and peacefully co-exist with Muslims. Though this may not find immediate acceptance in todays world but this principle has always existed from the time of our Prophet (SA).

  1. The universal message of the Qur'an reveals that without subordination to a limited historical context, that the revelation therein accepts religious pluralism as given and even necessary, requiring Muslims to continually negotiate, transform and emphasize the fundamental unity of humankind in its origin and creation by the Divine Being. And despite the fact that there are gloomy predictions being circulated elsewhere in the name of theology and faith in a way that religious ideas are being used to promote hatred, destruction and mutual distrust in human societies the affirmation of diversity is one of the cornerstones in the creation narrative in the Holy Qur'an, and instead of regarding this diversity as a source of evitable tensions, it suggests that human diversity is indispensable for a particular tradition to define its common beliefs practices, values and traditions for its community life.11

  1. The idea that “The people are one community” is the foundation of a theological pluralism that presupposes that the divinely ordained quivalence and equal rights of all human beings.This unity may be justified theologically within the activity of the divine; it is best sought in the the sphere of ethics, which actually sustains people of faith. through this innate ethical nature, through “Fitra” (the primordial nature of every human being) which is given by Allah to all, humankind then acquires the ability to deal with others on the basis of equity and fairness. This as a result would allow the development of a global ethic that can provide the pluralistic basis for mediating interreligious relationships among peoples of diverse spiritual commitments, enabling them to build a working consensus of values and goals.

Whats therefore in the place of Islamic Pluralism in Dialogue?

What the Qur'an pushes forward as a paradigm is plain and simple; Islamic Pluralism is a process by which it could provide both a ethical,theological and spiritual basis for dialogue, mediation and the forging of interreligious relationships to build a global community of diverse spiritual traditions.

May this humble article be a wreath of flowers that I lay before my spiritual teachers Marhumin Prof Amilussin Jumaani and Mufti Abdulghani Yusuf, foremost teachers and pioneers in dialogue and peace in Mindanao and to my master, Hazrat Baqiyatullah Muhammad al-Muntadhar Ibn Al-Hassan Al Mahdi.


Scriptural :

The Meanings of the Glorious Qur'an, Marmaduke Pikthall, Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an Inc.,New York,1994

The Qur'an: Arabic Text with corresponding Meanings, ed. by Saheeh International,AbulQaseem Publishing House, Riyad KSA,1997

Translation of the Meanings of the Holy Qur'an in The English Language,Hilali and Khan, King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an, KSA, 2000

Scholarly Books:

Islam in a Changing World, ed by Jerichow and Simonsen . Curzons press, Great Britain, 1997

Religious Freedom,Minorities and Islam: am inquiry into the Malaysian Experience. Yousif,Ahmed. Thinkers Library BHD,Selangor Malaysia,1998

The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism, Sachedina, Abdulaziz, ,Center for Strategic and International Studies,2001, Oxford University press.USA

The Peace”; Rehaman, Abdul,Dubai Publishing. UAE, 1999

The Era of Imam Mahdi vis a vis the new global order as espoused by the West : An understanding and analysis vis a vis dialectics of the the West .

The Era of Imam Mahdi vis a vis the new global order as espoused by the West :
An understanding and analysis vis a vis dialectics of the the West .

A concept paper by Roque Yusuf Morales

  1. Introduction:

In The Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Most Compassionate.

As the collapse of the cold war, we have seen that a new world order has unfolded in the eyes
of the West, however, as this world ored unfolds, the West has been in a dilemma on how to
define the parameters of this order. Indeed, numerous theories and political analysis has
been proposed by the so called "enlightened scholars " of the West. But the Question now
arises: how does Islam and us, the global Ummah look at this world aroder and how do
we also define our parameters today? An How do we, believers and adherents
of Hazrat Baqiyatullah (May Allah hasten his return) prepare in this context?

We as members of the Global Muslim Ummah, may have to look at different angles as well as from different perspectives if we may arrive at a conclusion. This may not be conclusive for all times, it is our humble effort, so that we may be able to move forward in todays age and leave a legacy for other Muslims to come.

As one looks at the different theories expressed and espoused today, I cannot but help but remember the ideals left by those who have come before us, like Imam Khomeini (rahmatullahi alayhi) when he wrote the then president Mikhail Gorbachev and predicted the demise of theSoviet Union, saying; that the lac of a spiritual and moral ascendancy of socialism, being materialistic in nature will ultimately lead to the collapse of the socialist world order. And as one American Scholar has said, as the current trend of Modernization proceeds, the fundamental human value from the worship of God and the virtues of Tqwa, Imaan and Ihsan are replaced by values like vice, vanity, personal interests over the others, self over others, there appears a ever and more stronger need for us Muslims to propose the need also for the West to study the high, lofty and ethical values of Islam.

In the traditions of the late Ali Shariati's Ruhshanfekr being today's enlightened individuals , we will attempt to dissect the theories of the new global world order proposed by the West and their worldview and how we must propose to interact with the world in a move to propose also our own concept of a just and humane society baed on Tawheed and Adalah.

In a way, as we, the adherents of our beloved prophet Muhammad (SAWA) anxiously await his honored desecendant, how do we view the global events and act towards preparation of a state of Imam Mahdi's (ATFS) return to us.

II. How the West views todays Global order

After the demise of the Soviet Union as predicted by Imam Khomeini (rahmatullahi alyh), the West has seen that the eternal archenemy of Capitalism and Democracy, i.e. Socialism as represented by the Soviet Union has collapsed; corollary to this the collapse of the Iron Curtain in Germany, the concept of collectivism and state owned enterprises as espoused by communism has eventually became a thing of the past, and even the Sleeping Giant China, has awakened from its slumber to partake in the eventual Capitalization of the world.

As there appeared a clear and present need to define a new global order, a prominent think tank from the West, Samuel Huntington in a response to this need defined a new context, civilizational fault lines... in short, where cultures clash, civilizations and nations would clash. This was the eventual definition of this paper, "clash of civilizations and the rise of a new order".However, another known Western scholar Edward Said views that the presentation of Huntington preposterous in the sense paranoic.

This is the ineventual problem of the causality of Huntingtons concepts..... from a clash of civilizations, it is surmised that such a clash occurs whenever ignorance takes place. instead of understanding what causes cultures and civilizations to clash, why not also try to look at the parallel sum of things like universal human values that are treasured in every culture and civilization.The same can be said of looking the the paralellism of anarchistic and terrrorist groups lingering in the different cultures like the Branch dravidian, Aum Shinyo or the Baader Meinhof gangs that are much alike the terrroristic manifestations of al-Qaeda or other groups like the Tamil Tigers and the Sin Fein in Ireland.

And as Said says, “But we are all swimming in those waters, Westerners and Muslims and others alike.
And since the waters are part of the ocean of history, trying to plow or divide them with barriers is futile.
These are tense times, but it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the
secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander
off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis.
"The Clash of Civilizations" thesis is a gimmick like "The War of the Worlds," better for reinforcing defensive self-pride
than for critical understanding of the bewildering interdependence of our time. “

What is needed for civilizations to understand each other is dialogue, pluralist persepective and an openness to the other.

As the West aims also in defining order, it also aims to define states that in its opinion are threats to the stability of the new global order, unconsciously defining these states as "rogue states" at the root of this definition is "viciousness,lack of principle and propensity to engage in unilateral action (Herman, 2006). it is clear that within that context, it is apparent that those that apparently falls out of context of the Western definition of universal Human values appears to be part of the target of Western Imperialist Hegemony. it then appears that even states that are merely guarding their legitimate interests and protecting their citizens is seen as rogue and therefore in the eyes of the West are viewed as axis of evil.

As the West aims also in defining order, it also aims to define states that in its opinion are threats to the stability of the new global order, unconsciously defining these states as "rogue states" at the root of this definition is "viciousness,lack of principle and propensity to engage in unilateral action (Herman, 2006). it is clear that within that context, it is apparent that those that apparently falls out of context of the Western definition of universal Human values appears to be part of the target of Western Imperialist Hegemony. it then appears that even states that are merely guarding their legitimate interests and protecting their citizens is seen as rogue and therefore in the eyes of the West are viewed as axis of evil.

What pushes the West to aggressively pursue this Global World Order at the expense of other smaller sovereign states? The answer lies in the fact that Neoliberalism and Globalization also has played a significant role in the pursuance and aggressive implementation of this policy.

In the total sum of things, the world new order that the west (in the view that is pushed by the United states)
proposes is the Globalization of Markets, where nations are forced to co-opt their national sovereignty in
the face of tariffs and trade quotas always in the name of the Balance of Trade (BOT), however, this Balance
of Trade always shifts in favor of first world countries, Transnational Corporations (TNC) that operate their
businesses internationally and exploit the cheap labor cost , cheap mineral resources in the Third world at
a tremendous profit with no moral conscience of returning even a small portion of their accumulated wealth,
taking it abroad.

In short this is best manifested by decreasing of government subsidies and privatization of government and
owned and controlled corporations, free unrestricted trade by the lifting of tarriffs and barriers (giving rise to
the entry of Multinational and transnational corporations ), and the non-intervention of Government in many
policies to allow MNC and TNC's to operate as they wish. Neoliberalism also influences first world countries
to focus on absolute gains over other nation states. This puts minor states like for example the Philippines,
Sierra Leonne, Tunisia or even Egypt at a major trade disadvantage with Trade relations with the West. This
normally would put out Muslims states who are currently at Economic hardships at the mercy of the West. This
is coupled by Globalization which is the international economic manifestation of neoliberalism.

This in a nutshell, causes First world countries dominance over us Muslims, thereby using all available political,
diplomatic tools available to them to achieve their pursuit.

What then happens if this fails to materialize or they see a potential area to extend their influence? Perhaps
recent events in the Muslim world from Afghanistan, to Iraq, to Sudan are enough evidence to prove that good
intentions are clearly driven by the need to fuel their capitalist economies.

We have been always been reminding our brethren to hold to the rope of Allah and to unite to strengthen the Ummah
again in the face of adversity.

Now however, despite this behemoth order that the West Wishes to impose upon us, it itself is in the brink of decay
as it is largely dependent as in the words of Norman Angel another Neocon proponent, saying: "We cannot ensure
the stability of the present system by the political or military preponderance of our nation or alliance by imposing its
will on a rival.( Norman Angell, The Great Illusion, (1909) cited from 1933 ed. (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons),p. 137.)
It only goes to say that in order for their global world order to survive, Global Bullying has become legitimized in the
guide of protecting a nations vested interest. Never the less, Muslim states also possess the right to protect their
collective interests as part of the Global Ummah as well as humanity.

At the head of this Global Order, is the United States, being today ruled by the NeoConservatives, this ideology has
its ramifications to both US domestic and Foreign policies.

III. What do we intend to do with this current context?

What appears here is a complex web of complex concepts intertwined with each other which we may call the Four microcosms of the west.The current Global World Order as seen by the west is best dissected by what we can say as the Four Microcosms of the West. these are the ideological tools that they use to look at the world and interact with it.

After seeing that a new world order has arisen, the west as a policy has adopted what we may call as a POST WAR HEGEMONY STRATEGY in dealing with the world. within this context they have underlined a four--set in which they deal with the world which is as follows:

  1. They define who are and can be their allies

  2. They identify potential threats and enemies and define them as rogue states

  3. they apply sanctions to countries which refuse to be bullied under their new world order

    1. creation of economic sanctions by:

      1. primary boycott of countries allied to the West of any economic transactions with the Country targetted

      2. secondary boycotts by threatening Multinational corporations/Transnational Companies from transacting business with so-called Rogue States.

    2. application of Political Sanctions by outmaneuvering international organizations like the United Nations Security Council

    3. pressuring states allied with the West to apply pressure or expelling diplomats from rogue states.

  4. they create scenarios of which they seek to manipulate the events to their own benefits

    1. Political scenarios wherein they aim to create political turmoil by fermenting dissension in rogue states

    2. International Diplomatic isolation by trying to either neutralize or pressure diplomats from the so-called rogue states for participating in international diplomatic and political actions by either exclusion/expulsion from membership or pressuring other states to actively support actions against these states.

By looking at this unipolar behemoth movement, we can ascertain that we can apply a new and novel approch of countering this unipolar hegemony. This we may now call a multi-polar approach.

As we all know that the New global world order as espoused in the West and articulated by the United states is that it is to globalized, consumer oriented and prone to machinations of the West who may attempt to influence smaller countries and economies through coercion and pressure .

We must understand that indeed in order to usher in a new global order of Peace, unity, development, social justice....INDEED IT IS INDEED HAZRAT MUNTAZAR must come, but how can we push over an era wherein the appearance of Imam Zaman (ATFS) would come to pass.

For such a circumstance to take place we as well must also take part in awakening the global Ummah as well as the non-Muslim world towards the accomplishment of these goals.

We as a natural result, will also apply a series of steps aimed to push for the following:

  1. Creation and strengthening of a new non-aligned movement which will advocate the interests of smaller states.this may also lead the way for the strengthening of pre-existing regional forums where focus will be aimed at strengthening of local regions and states as well as political and economic cooperation among them.

  2. Creation of "Centres of Dialogue and Understanding" that aims to popularize the dialogue of civilizations as a response to the Theory of "clash of civilizations".These centres of dialogues may be schools, academic organizations Non-government organizations shall be distributed regionally among strategic areas. they shall also be tasked to undertake researches and conferences in the aim of further propagating these concepts. special focus and emphasis shall be given to East-East and East-West Dialogue of civilizations.

  3. Creation of fora that aims to include other non-aligned states on a regional basis paving the way for the creation multipolar spheres of influences as well as alignments to ensure that smaller states be not coerced by the west into concessions and that these regional states interests be pursued and protected.

  4. Commissioning of regional researches involving an exhaustive study on Islamic pluralism and concepts of dialogue from a localized persepective that may equip Muslim scholars and laymen with the proper knowledge, tools and methodology of dialogue and proper interaction with other cultures.

  5. Open an International Research Organization for the study on how the Concept of Mahdiism can fully assist in the development of both the Global Muslim Ummah and the whole world in general.

No plan is perfect except with the Guidance of Allah, and insha Allah,. with proper guidance and leadership of the warasatul al-anbiya'a. We shall be successful in the implementation of these projects.


  • Imam Khomeini's (Quddisah Sirruh) letter to President Gorbachev.

  • Wikipedia,

  • Beyond American Hegemony . By Michael Lind, New America Foundation The National Interest | May/June 2007

  • The clash of Civilizations. by Samuel P. Huntington .Foreign Affairs Summer 1993

  • The Clash of Ignorance. By Edward Said.,The Nation, October 2001 issue

  • U.S. Policy on Rogue States :The concept "rogue state" is highly nuanced. The U.S. does not fall into the category despite its terrorist attacks against Cuba for close to 40 years.

    By NoamChomsky.,

  • Neocon 101. The Christian Science Monitor (source:

  • Beyond American Hegemony .By Michael Lind, New America Foundation .The National Interest | May/June 2007

  • AL-IMAM AL-MAHDI:THE JUST LEADER OF HUMANITY.By:Ayatollah Ibrahim Amini.Translated by.Dr. Abdulaziz Sachedina

  • Discussions Concerning al-Mahdi (May Allah hasten his return)by Ayatullah al-Uzma al-Hajj ash-Shaykh Lutfullah as-Safi al-Gulpaygani Translated by Sayyid Sulayman Ali Hasan First Edition 2000.Published by:Islamic Humanitarian Service/Fath al-Mubin Publications.153 Frederick Street, Suite101

  • The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam(A Historical Background) by Jassim M. Hussain Published by: The Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain & Northern Ireland In co-operation with The Zahra Trust, P.O Box 29926 San Antonio TX 78229 USA

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